Jeebesh Bagchi | Sarai Reader List | Sunday March 18, 2007

A father stutters in remembering the name of his son in an ice
covered martyr’s graveyard. He is looking for his son’s grave.

In a found video footage from the 90s, a girl in her late teens
passionately, but viscerally, describes the body of a young man in
the neighbourhood, killed during an army operation. The body is lying
in the crossroad amidst the houses; no one is allowed to approach.
“Even the dog did not go near it,” she says flatly.

In an OPD ward of the post-trauma centre, the doctor listens to the
story of a woman. In her dreams, figures in white shrouds appear –
and never reveal their faces.

Sanjay’s film is a cautionary tale to not make light the depth of the
feelings around the word “Azadi” in today’s Kashmir. The feeling is
deep and resonant with halted lives of 100,000 dead over the last 18

The film discovers this latent, almost volcanic, subterranean layer
by entering the journey through the dead. It uncovers video archives
of the dead, moves with a team that is trying to ascertain the count
of dead and disappeared, stands in at doctors’ chambers in a post
trauma therapy center, moves with a funeral procession, visits a camp
where orphans sing Iqbal’s ‘Sare Jahan se acha’ and records the ashes
left behind by relentless military operations (highest and
unimaginable civilian to military ratio anywhere in the world.)


To recall the dead and to make it speak, is at all times a difficult
existential and philosophical task. It is to the filmmaker’s credit
that he attempts this and we will try to understand how he does so
and what are the conceptual difficulties he is working with.
Hopefully through this we may achieve a vantage point to think with
and beyond the film, into the landscape of the unsayable,
incomprehensible terror that the film wants us all to wake up to.

The conceptual axis is built around understanding of the
reverberating word ‘Shahid’. The martyr. The one who has given his or
her life for a defense of a conception of life. The word Shahid
vibrates at all corners of the landscape of the film. It is the mute,
troubled figure that links Zulm (oppression) and Azaadi (freedom).

The film tries to give a new entry point to this given conceptual
structure by bringing in the latent meaning hidden in Shahid – that
of a witness in its Arabic etymological roots (and we may add also in
its Greek etymological roots). So martyr is no longer just the dead,
but a person who has a testimony.

Agambem in his commentary (Remnants of Auschwitz) on testimony and
the archive opens out an internal tension in the concept of witness
and the martyr. One meaning of witness could be one who is brought
into the trial as a third party and the other is one who has been a
part of the event from the beginning and therefore bears witness to
it. The second sense of the term is not concerned with the trial or
the judgement, but opens us to the gray zones of life, questions that
law or juridical reason do not or cannot exhaust.

Martyr could be seen as someone who bears witness to a destruction. A
martyr cannot but remember. It is she who remembers to keep alive a
conception of life. But, martyr is also someone who is a sufferer or
felled by that which is horrible, terrifying, without a life giving
form, without sustenance. A martyr death is also a senseless death, a
death that its perpetrators or executioners visit upon people without
an understanding of what has been undertaken. A death visited, that
halts a life, it is without purpose. A death that a future must abjure.


The film tries to organise our relationship to the years of terror
and mutilation by a repetitive visit to sites and images of violence
in more or less similar ways. The reoccurring shots of the walk back
of army contingents after an assault on a settlement creates an
overwhelming spiral with no end in sight. An inchoate weight of
senselessness is produced. Shot over two years, the filmmaker
communicates over each journey a sense of life that is perpetually
halted. An emptiness soaks into the way it renders landscapes and
places. Death roams around loud.

This repetition is sought to be balanced by poetry and metaphors from
poetry. Only popular performers/jesters (bhands), poets and silent
nature can speak the unspeakable. The possibility of language to
think can be found in an unblinking look at the lyrical beauty of
nature, a poet’s anguish and popular performers’ indomitable spirit
to produce meaning and a sense of what it means to live in these
times. These are also the few remaining bleak signs of life in the film.

Within these two threads – one relentless, overwhelming and the other
fragmentary, fragile – nests the archive of the dead and the
testimony of the one who bears witness. The images that we referred
to in the beginning appear here. They are a stutter, a visceral
detail, a nightmare, difficult accounts that refuse to slip into
settled frameworks of knowing. It is here that the film starts
encountering its problem. The idea of martyr as dead, fixed and
organized in a language of politics, mobilized for judgement collides
with the martyr who bears witness. The film does not allow this
collision to take shape and grow. The collision gets further frozen
by the stance of the filmmaker who produces the account of a third
party in his voice-overs. A fall back on the idea of witness as

The two classical documentary modes – a disembodied voice that
contextualises and a juxtapositional play to comment and draw meaning
– are deployed by the filmmaker to cohere the various trajectories
that his journey had opened out. It is here that the films weakens
itself and lends itself to simpler ideological readings. These
ideological readings will play on the inclusion and exclusion that
any narrative will need to produce to cohere. But, the crucial
vector, as to why these aesthetic modes were deployed, would remain

The filmmaker is there in the film in its very grain. But the
structure that is built on repetition and fragments creates a problem
of stance. The voice tries to intervene. The unease of not achieving
a stance is mediated by the voice and juxtapositional commentary. For
example, the rapid “cut performance” with tourism industry’s
vulgarity and tourists’ ennui is an extremely weak ground to stand
on when the ambition of the film is to engage with the deepest
dilemmas of today. Similarly the voice takes an authority to comment
on ghost figures. One wonders what in the encounter or the material
is this authority being drawn from. It is in these moments that one
misses most the “diary” of the filmmaker during his journeys. If the
landscape and the archive is barely audible, one would have thought
that the filmmaker would let us enter this space of silence, this
space of death through his attempts to listen to this inaudibility.
The urge to comment thwarts the process of making sense in a trying
journey. The logical impossibility of various meanings of witness and
martyr ever meeting remains unacknowledged.


The way the film captures the feeble and shabby attempts by the armed
forces to produce for itself an image of also being a carrier of
signs of life is moving. The images of the school, the orphanage, the
donation of portable radio sets mark a total depletion of the signs
of “development”. A hollowness that is haunting.

A retired army-man now counts, names and locates the dead. A battle
with his’ and others memories to keep alive atleast a faint
recollection through “just the name”. He acknowledges that a few
could have been left unnamed. A witness who cannot do anything else
but try to remember.

A fire in a building that refuses to die out. The electric wires
keeps burning. The mounting debris of ash and wood remains.

Also remains an unfulfilled promise of the deeper acknowledgment of
the materials and the notes. We would make a comradely request to the
filmmaker to not see the film as the end of this specific journey.
The materials and the notes need to appear in other forms, and then
maybe over a longer period we will learn and educate ourselves, as to
what it means to live in the now that the film opens for us.



Jashn-e-Azadi is available through various online outlets like amazon

You can now buy a DVD of the film, or Download it and watch
More than two years in the making, Jashn-e-azadi [How We Celebrate Freedom], is a feature length documentary by film-maker Sanjay Kak which explores the implications of the struggle for Azadi, for freedom, in the Kashmir valley.

Click here to watch the Trailer

As India celebrates the 60th anniversary of it's Independence, this provocative and quietly disturbing new film raises questions about freedom in Kashmir, and about the degrees of freedom in India.

And here is a short Interview with the film-maker.

This Jashn-e-Azadi blog is an open forum for conversations about the film, about Kashmir, and about Azadi itself.

For more information about screenings, sales and broadcast write to


For dispatches from the present

Voices of protest can be found here or call you from here

Stone in my hand

In the season of solutions, the late Eqbal Ahmad's wise words have to be remembered

Kashmir blog has the best one line blog take on Kashmir - they call it paradise, I call it home.

Zarafshan is a Kashmiri blogger whose blog (and blogrolls) are "just ways of dispersing news, views and feelings!"

For a considered discussion on the vexed issue of Pandits in Kashmir see Kasheer. And for more on this Ephemeral Existence

And a discovery called Paradise Lost

RSS Kashmir via Greater Kashmir

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Festival screenings

May 26, 2008 / International Video Festival of Kerala
Apr 28, 2008 / Dok.Fest
Feb 10, 2008 / Himalaya Film Festival
Nov 28, 2007 / International Documentary Festival
Oct 12, 2007 / Film South Asia
July 22, 2007 / Osian’s Cinefan film festival

Previous Previews

7 Dec 2007 / School of Oriental & African Studies & Sacred Media Cow
6 Dec 2007 / Workshop Theatre, School of English, University of Leeds
Egham, Surrey
3 Dec 2007 / Royal Holloway, University of London
New Delhi
26 Nov 2007 / Russian Centre of Science & Culture & Magic Lantern Foundation

New Jersey
Oct 5, 2007 / College of New Jersey
New York City
Oct 4, 2007 / Columbia School of Journalism
Oct 2, 2007 / University of Texas
Sep 28, 2007 / Temple University
Sep 27, 2007 / University of Pennsylvania
New York State
Sep 26, 2007 / Vassar College
New York City
Sep 25, 2007 / New School for Social Research
Sep 23, 2007 @ MIT
Sep 22, 2007 / SALDA
Sep 21, 2007 / University of Toronto
New Haven
Sep 20, 2007 / Yale University
Sep 18, 2007 / University of Minnesota

Aug 10, 2007 / Pure Docs, Prasad Preview, Banjara Hills

interrupted previews!! [[ MUMBAI ...
July 27, 2007 (Fri)
Vikalp: Films for Freedom @ Bhupesh Gupta Bhawan, 85 Sayani Road, Prabhadevi
July 30, 2007 (Mon)
Vikalp: Films for Freedom @ Prithvi House, Juhu...]]

July 14, 2007 / Institute of Agrl. Technologies, Queens Road
July 13, 2007 / Centre for Film & Drama, Millers Road
June 13, 2007, Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar Hall
June 12, 2007, National Film Archive of India Auditorium
May 29, 2007, Blue Moon Hotel
May 26, 2007, Assam Club, Laban
May 12, 2007, Hindi Bhavan Hall
March 31, 2007, Tagore Hall
New Delhi
March 23, 2007, Sarai-CSDS
New Delhi
March 13, 2007, India Habitat Center



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