AZADI | AZAD KASHMIR | APHC
BSF | BUNKER
CAMP | CAT | CHAPAH | CIVIL CURFEW | CONVOY
CRACKDOWN | CROSSFIRING | CRPF | CURFEW
DAFA 144 | DHEAL | DEPOT | DOGRAS
FIDAYEEN
GUJJARS
HIDE OUT | HM
IED | IKHWANI | INDIAN JAMMU & KASHMIR | INTERROGATION | INTERROGATION CENTRE
JAMMU & KASHMIR | JeM | JKLF
KASHMIRIYAT
LeT | LOC
MINE
PANDITS | PICKET | PTSD
RR
SOG

A top

AZADI
Freedom, the rallying cry of supporters of self determination in Kashmir

AZAD KASHMIR
Azad (Free) Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). The more populous part of Pakistani-controlled J&K, with a population of approx. 2.5 million. Its capital is the town of Muzaffarabad. AJK’s political life is heavily controlled by Pakistani authorities, especially the military.
kashmir_region_2003-resized.jpg

APHC
All Party Hurriyat (Freedom) Conference. Srinagar based coalition of political and religious groups, that stands for the Right to Self-determination in Kashmir. APHC is split into two factions-described as Moderate and Hardline

Btop

BSF
Border Security Force. The largest component of the vast Indian paramilitary apparatus in Indian J&K, Until 2004, deployed extensively in urban policing and counter-insurgency operations. Now largely deployed on the borders of the state.

BUNKER
A sand bag formation with a peep hole, through which the nose of the sentry’s rifle stares at passers by. Bunkers are part of a huge surveillance structure put in place by Indian troops.

Ctop

CAMP
Big military area. Also medical camps set up by Indian troops in Kashmir.

CAT
A captured or surrendered militant who breaks down in an interrogation, and agrees to accompany troops to recover arms and ammunition, or to identify local sympathisers in a CRACKDOWN.

CHAPAH
CRACKDOWN on one house or a group of houses to capture militants; carried out on a specific tip off.

CIVIL CURFEW
When Militants give a call for total shutdown. No one in the streets.

CONVOY
Hundreds of military vehicles moving one after the other like a serpent. All other traffic comes to halt, till the convoy passes.

CRACKDOWN
Indian forces lay siege to an entire town or a village, and ask all men to come out into an open area. Announcements are generally made over microphones of local mosques. Women are allowed to stay home. While troops go home to home and search for hidden militants or arms, young men are paraded in front of a CAT. If the CAT nods towards anyone, he is taken away for interrogation. A crackdown can last from dawn to dusk; but sometimes goes on for a couple of days.

CROSS FIRING
When a militant is killed by the troops, he is said to have been ‘neutralised in an Operation’. If the militants kill a trooper, their press release reads ‘despatched to hell in a successful mujahideen action’. When a civilian is killed by the troopers, he is said to have ‘died in a cross fire’. If militants kill a civilian, he ‘was an informer’.

CRPF
Central Reserve Police Force. The second largest Indian Paramiliatry force deployed in Indian J&K. After 2004 have taken over the urban policing and counter-insurgency operations of the BSF in most parts of Kashmir.

CURFEW
Troops on the streets. No one is allowed out. Shoot at sight.

Dtop

DAFA 144
No four people can walk with or talk to each other in public. If seen it could lead to arrest under Public Safety Act. Origins: Indian Penal Code.

DHEAL
A small break in the CURFEW; when things seem to have improved.

DEPOT
Army’s ammunition dumps in Kashmir. Stretch for dozens of square miles (generally elaborate complexes built under low hills).

DOGRAS
A Hindu community found in plains and foothills of Jammu Region. A Dogra dynasty founded the princely state of J&K and ruled it from 1846-1947.

Ftop

FIDAYEEN
Literally, Life Daring. Not Suicide Attackers.

Gtop

GUJJARS
A non-Kashmiri speaking Muslim community of J&K whose traditional occupation is livestock rearing, and subsistence farming.

Htop

HIDE OUT
Militant safe house.

HM
Hizb-ul Mujahideen. Formed in 1990, the largest guerilla organisation active in Indian J & K.

Itop

IED
Improvised Explosive Device. A deadly weapon used by guerillas. These makeshift bombs and mines are usually placed on roadsides to target foot patrols, vehicles and convoys, and are often detonated by remote control.

IKHWANI
Brother in Arabic. In Kashmir, Ikhwani became a word for renegade, another word for collaborator. It’s origins lay in the mid 90s, in Indian Security Forces buying up fringe militant groups, arming and protecting them, then unleashing them upon their own people.

INDIAN JAMMU and KASHMIR (IJK)
Indian-controlled J & K. The larger and more populous part of the former princely state. It has a population of slightly more than 10 million, and comprises three regions: Kashmir Valley, Jammu, and Ladakh.

kashmir_region_2003-resized.jpg

INTERROGATION
Includes putting hot potatoes up the anus, passing electric shocks to the penis, and roasting the backside on a hot stove. All this is done in an interrogation centre to extract information about militants.

INTERROGATION CENTRE
Papa 1, Papa 2, JIC, Air Cargo, SICOP.

Jtop

JAMMU & KASHMIR (J&K)
The former princely state that is the area of the Kashmir Dispute. Besides Indian controlled J & K (IJK) and Pakistan controlled AZAD KASHMIR (AJK), it includes Gilgit and Baltistan and some uninhabitable high altitude tracts under Chinese control (Aksai Chin).
kashmir_region_2003-resized.jpg
JeM
Jaish-e-Mohammad. A radical Islamic group centred in Pakistan and active in J&K. Formed in early 2000 by Maulana Masood Azhar, who was captured in Kashmir and later released in exchange for passengers in the 1999 Kandahar hijacking.

JKLF
Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front. A movement founded in the mid sixties in AJK with the aim of reuniting the entire territory of the J&K as an independent state. It acquired support in IJK’s Kashmir valley in the late 1980s, and spearheaded the insurrection in 1990. it ceased guerilla activity in IJK in 1994, but it continues to be the voice of independentist ideology in both IJK and AJK.

Ktop

KASHMIRIYAT
A notional concept referring to an inclusive syncretic identity of Kashmiris with sources both in Hinduism and Islam. A term which has been widely debated, both by Kashmiri Pandits and Muslims.

Ltop

LeT
Lashkar-eTaiba. An insurgent group active in IJK since the mid 1990s, spawned by a Pakistan-based movement professing an orthodox Sunni Islam. LeT cadres have been responsible for the deadliest fidayeen attacks in IJK since 1999. Along with JeM, LeT was formally banned in Pakistan in January 2002.

LOC
Line of Control. The 740 km dividing line between IJK and AJK. It originated in January 1949 as a ceasefire line between India and Pakistan and is now de-facto border. At its northern end, the LOC terminates at a point called NJ 9842 in the Himalayas, beyond which lies a glacial region, Siachen.

Mtop

MINE
Landmine.

Ptop

PANDITS
The Kashmir valley’s small (4%) Brahmin Hindu minority. In the 1990 uprising, Kashmir’s Pandit minority became extremely vulnerable to a sharp religious polarization. That year almost 200 Hindus were brutally killed by extremists. The Government of the day let it be known it was unable to guarantee their safety, and even encouraged them to leave. Over the next year, nearly 160,000 Pandits fled the valley. Today less than 10,000 continue to live in their Valley homeland.

PICKET
A small military or paramilitary complex in civilian areas.

PTSD
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Rtop

RR
Rashtriya (National) Rifles. Regular Indian Army troops deployed since the early 1990s on full-time counterinsurgency operations in IJK. Four RR formations of over 10000 soldiers each operate in IJK, two in the Kashmir valley and two in the Jammu region.Romeo-RR force based in North Kashmir; Victor-RR force based in South Kashmir AND Kilo-RR force based in Central Kashmir.

Stop

SOG
Special Operations Group. A counter-terrorism police force, consisting of IJK residents including former guerillas(Ikhwanis), and a group much feared for its criminality and brutality.

Majority of the KEYWORDS elaborated as in
KASHMIR – Roots of Conflict, Paths to peace by SUMANTRA BOSE
2003, Vistaar Publications, New Delhi

Thanks to J who has contributed to this growing list.

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9 Responses to “keywords”


  1. 1 J February 24, 2007 at 8:55 pm

    My contribution to keywords…

    Bunker

    A sand bag formation with a peep hole, through which the nose of the sentry’s rifle stares at passers by. Bunkers are part of a huge surveillance structure put in place by Indian troops.

    Camp

    Big military area. Also medical camps set up by Indian troops in Kashmir.

    Cat

    A captured or surrendered militant who breaks down in an interrogation, and agrees to accompany troops to recover arms and ammunition, or to identify local sympathisers in a crack down.

    Convoy

    Hundreds of military vehicles moving one after the other like a serpent. All other traffic comes to halt, till the convoy passes.

    Crack Down

    Indian forces lay siege to an entire town or a village, and ask all men to come out into an open area. Announcements are generally made over microphones of local mosques. Women are allowed to stay home. While troops go home to home and search for hidden militants or arms, young men are paraded in front of a Cat. If the Cat nods toward anyone, he is taken away for interrogation. A crackdown can last from dawn to dusk; but sometimes goes on for a couple of days.

    Chapah

    Crackdown on one house or a group of houses to capture militants; carried out on a specific tip off.

    Cross firing

    When a militant is killed by the troops, he is said to have been ‘neutralised in an Operation’. If the militants kill a trooper, their press release reads ‘despatched to hell in a successful mujahideen action’. When a civilian is killed by the troopers, he is said to have ‘died in a cross fire’. If militants kill a civilian, he ‘was an informer’.

    Curfew

    Troops on the streets. No one is allowed out. Shoot at sight.

    Civil Curfew

    Militants give a call for total shutdown. No one in the streets.

    Deal

    A small break in the curfew; when things seem to have improved.

    Dafa 144

    No four people can walk with or talk to each other in public. If seen it could lead to arrest under Public Safety Act. Origins: Indian Penal Code.

    Depot

    Army’s ammunition dumps in Kashmir. Stretch for dozens of square miles (generally elaborate complexes built under low hills).

    Farooq Abdullah

    Former CM of J&K. Signed accord with Rajiv Gandhi, former PM of India. Also son of Sheikh Abdullah former PM (and later CM) of J&K, who signed accord with Indira Gandhi, former PM of India, and also mother of Rajiv Gandhi.

    Hide out

    Militant safe house.

    Interrogation

    Includes putting hot potatoes up the anus, passing electric shocks to the penis, and roasting the backside on a hot stove. All this is done in an interrogation centre to extract information about militants.

    Interrogation Centre

    Papa 1, Papa 2, JIC, Air Cargo, SICOP.

    Mine

    Landmine.

    Mufti Syed

    Ex-CM J&K. Former Union Home Minister of India. Father of Rubiya Syed, who was abducted by JKLF in 1990, and was only released after government released five JKLF men.

    Picket

    A small military or paramilitary complex in civilian areas.

    Romeo

    RR force based in North Kashmir

    Victor

    RR force based in South Kashmir

    Kilo

    RR force based in Central Kashmir.

  2. 2 Sajid March 6, 2007 at 10:18 am

    Action

    When Mujehideens laid an ambush, it was called action.

    Soith

    An upperground militant.

    Mukbir

    A Spy.

    Baktherband

    An armored vehicle of security forces used for introgation and raids.

  3. 3 owais March 7, 2007 at 4:33 pm

    Blackout

    Means protest in the form of putting off all the lights indoors as well as outdoors by masses.

  4. 4 V April 12, 2008 at 10:19 pm

    How do Kashmiris refer to the struggle, the movement?

    And is there an equivalent word for the time of conflict – something like “the troubles” in Northern Ireland?

  5. 5 J April 15, 2008 at 6:18 am

    Kashmiris call their movement “Tehreek”. Tehreek is closely connected to ‘Harkat’ which means ‘to move.’ Muslims believe that: “In Harkat only is there any Barkat.” Barkat means fruit; but it is more than that. If you make a move, your fruits will grow exponentially.

    In early Muslim times, trade was considered a better occupation than settled farming. Caravans of Muslims carrying products would travel to different parts of the world. They carried the message of Islam with them. The Prophet himself travelled a lot with the caravans of his future wife Khadija. He also exhorted Muslims to try to acquire knowledge even if it meant a ‘travel’ to China. China was considered the other end of the world then.

    In Kashmiri political context, the fruit is Azaadi–the independence.

    The Kashmiri equivalent of Irish “troubles” is “kharab halaat” which translates as “bad conditions”.

    best

  6. 6 Jawad Ahmed April 15, 2008 at 7:16 am

    Kashmiris refer to the struggle as “Tehreek” — the movement. Tehreek is essentially an Arabic word borrowed into Urdu and Kashmiri. The etymological root of the word comes from “Harkah”, which signifies a movement, an agitation.

    In Kashmir, the equivalent word for the time of conflict is also referred to as “Tehreek”.

    The word has become as signifier that encompasses the total idea of a continuing struggle for the right to self-determination, much like the “Intifada” is for Palestinians.

    Cheers

    Jawad

  7. 7 Kiran Vachhani August 25, 2009 at 4:10 pm

    U kashmiris at least have the right to live in kashmir and profess your religion… Us hindu sindhis were just told to convert or die and had to leave our motherland forever… No UN resolutions, no appeals by the bastard Nehru nor sympathy by bastard Jinnah…

  8. 8 vikram October 4, 2009 at 5:16 am

    kashmir is a heaven on earth and i dont know why they just want to make it hell … humanity is dying man


  1. 1 keywords- an incomplete glossary of words « Jashn-e-Azadi Trackback on February 24, 2007 at 3:28 am

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Jashn-e-Azadi is available through various online outlets like amazon

You can now buy a DVD of the film, or Download it and watch
More than two years in the making, Jashn-e-azadi [How We Celebrate Freedom], is a feature length documentary by film-maker Sanjay Kak which explores the implications of the struggle for Azadi, for freedom, in the Kashmir valley.

Click here to watch the Trailer

As India celebrates the 60th anniversary of it's Independence, this provocative and quietly disturbing new film raises questions about freedom in Kashmir, and about the degrees of freedom in India.

And here is a short Interview with the film-maker.

This Jashn-e-Azadi blog is an open forum for conversations about the film, about Kashmir, and about Azadi itself.

For more information about screenings, sales and broadcast write to
jashneazadifilmATgmail.com

links

For dispatches from the present

Voices of protest can be found here or call you from here

Stone in my hand

In the season of solutions, the late Eqbal Ahmad's wise words have to be remembered

Kashmir blog has the best one line blog take on Kashmir - they call it paradise, I call it home.

Zarafshan is a Kashmiri blogger whose blog (and blogrolls) are "just ways of dispersing news, views and feelings!"

For a considered discussion on the vexed issue of Pandits in Kashmir see Kasheer. And for more on this Ephemeral Existence

And a discovery called Paradise Lost

RSS Kashmir via Greater Kashmir

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previews

Festival screenings

Thiruvananthapuram
May 26, 2008 / International Video Festival of Kerala
Munich
Apr 28, 2008 / Dok.Fest
Amsterdam
Feb 10, 2008 / Himalaya Film Festival
Amsterdam
Nov 28, 2007 / International Documentary Festival
Kathmandu
Oct 12, 2007 / Film South Asia
Delhi
July 22, 2007 / Osian’s Cinefan film festival

Previous Previews

London
7 Dec 2007 / School of Oriental & African Studies & Sacred Media Cow
Leeds
6 Dec 2007 / Workshop Theatre, School of English, University of Leeds
Egham, Surrey
3 Dec 2007 / Royal Holloway, University of London
New Delhi
26 Nov 2007 / Russian Centre of Science & Culture & Magic Lantern Foundation

New Jersey
Oct 5, 2007 / College of New Jersey
New York City
Oct 4, 2007 / Columbia School of Journalism
Austin
Oct 2, 2007 / University of Texas
Philadelphia
Sep 28, 2007 / Temple University
Philadelphia
Sep 27, 2007 / University of Pennsylvania
New York State
Sep 26, 2007 / Vassar College
New York City
Sep 25, 2007 / New School for Social Research
Boston
Sep 23, 2007 @ MIT
Toronto
Sep 22, 2007 / SALDA
Toronto
Sep 21, 2007 / University of Toronto
New Haven
Sep 20, 2007 / Yale University
Minneapolis
Sep 18, 2007 / University of Minnesota

Hyderabad
Aug 10, 2007 / Pure Docs, Prasad Preview, Banjara Hills

interrupted previews!! [[ MUMBAI ...
July 27, 2007 (Fri)
Vikalp: Films for Freedom @ Bhupesh Gupta Bhawan, 85 Sayani Road, Prabhadevi
July 30, 2007 (Mon)
Vikalp: Films for Freedom @ Prithvi House, Juhu...]]

Bangalore
July 14, 2007 / Institute of Agrl. Technologies, Queens Road
Bangalore
July 13, 2007 / Centre for Film & Drama, Millers Road
Nashik
June 13, 2007, Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar Hall
Pune
June 12, 2007, National Film Archive of India Auditorium
Guwahati
May 29, 2007, Blue Moon Hotel
Shillong
May 26, 2007, Assam Club, Laban
Patna
May 12, 2007, Hindi Bhavan Hall
Srinagar
March 31, 2007, Tagore Hall
New Delhi
March 23, 2007, Sarai-CSDS
New Delhi
March 13, 2007, India Habitat Center

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