AZADI | AZAD KASHMIR | APHC
BSF | BUNKER
CAMP | CAT | CHAPAH | CIVIL CURFEW | CONVOY
CRACKDOWN | CROSSFIRING | CRPF | CURFEW
DAFA 144 | DHEAL | DEPOT | DOGRAS
HIDE OUT | HM
IED | IKHWANI | INDIAN JAMMU & KASHMIR | INTERROGATION | INTERROGATION CENTRE
JAMMU & KASHMIR | JeM | JKLF
LeT | LOC
PANDITS | PICKET | PTSD
Freedom, the rallying cry of supporters of self determination in Kashmir
Azad (Free) Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). The more populous part of Pakistani-controlled J&K, with a population of approx. 2.5 million. Its capital is the town of Muzaffarabad. AJK’s political life is heavily controlled by Pakistani authorities, especially the military.
All Party Hurriyat (Freedom) Conference. Srinagar based coalition of political and religious groups, that stands for the Right to Self-determination in Kashmir. APHC is split into two factions-described as Moderate and Hardline
Border Security Force. The largest component of the vast Indian paramilitary apparatus in Indian J&K, Until 2004, deployed extensively in urban policing and counter-insurgency operations. Now largely deployed on the borders of the state.
A sand bag formation with a peep hole, through which the nose of the sentry’s rifle stares at passers by. Bunkers are part of a huge surveillance structure put in place by Indian troops.
Big military area. Also medical camps set up by Indian troops in Kashmir.
A captured or surrendered militant who breaks down in an interrogation, and agrees to accompany troops to recover arms and ammunition, or to identify local sympathisers in a CRACKDOWN.
CRACKDOWN on one house or a group of houses to capture militants; carried out on a specific tip off.
When Militants give a call for total shutdown. No one in the streets.
Hundreds of military vehicles moving one after the other like a serpent. All other traffic comes to halt, till the convoy passes.
Indian forces lay siege to an entire town or a village, and ask all men to come out into an open area. Announcements are generally made over microphones of local mosques. Women are allowed to stay home. While troops go home to home and search for hidden militants or arms, young men are paraded in front of a CAT. If the CAT nods towards anyone, he is taken away for interrogation. A crackdown can last from dawn to dusk; but sometimes goes on for a couple of days.
When a militant is killed by the troops, he is said to have been ‘neutralised in an Operation’. If the militants kill a trooper, their press release reads ‘despatched to hell in a successful mujahideen action’. When a civilian is killed by the troopers, he is said to have ‘died in a cross fire’. If militants kill a civilian, he ‘was an informer’.
Central Reserve Police Force. The second largest Indian Paramiliatry force deployed in Indian J&K. After 2004 have taken over the urban policing and counter-insurgency operations of the BSF in most parts of Kashmir.
No four people can walk with or talk to each other in public. If seen it could lead to arrest under Public Safety Act. Origins: Indian Penal Code.
A small break in the CURFEW; when things seem to have improved.
Army’s ammunition dumps in Kashmir. Stretch for dozens of square miles (generally elaborate complexes built under low hills).
A Hindu community found in plains and foothills of Jammu Region. A Dogra dynasty founded the princely state of J&K and ruled it from 1846-1947.
A non-Kashmiri speaking Muslim community of J&K whose traditional occupation is livestock rearing, and subsistence farming.
Militant safe house.
Hizb-ul Mujahideen. Formed in 1990, the largest guerilla organisation active in Indian J & K.
Improvised Explosive Device. A deadly weapon used by guerillas. These makeshift bombs and mines are usually placed on roadsides to target foot patrols, vehicles and convoys, and are often detonated by remote control.
Brother in Arabic. In Kashmir, Ikhwani became a word for renegade, another word for collaborator. It’s origins lay in the mid 90s, in Indian Security Forces buying up fringe militant groups, arming and protecting them, then unleashing them upon their own people.
INDIAN JAMMU and KASHMIR (IJK)
Indian-controlled J & K. The larger and more populous part of the former princely state. It has a population of slightly more than 10 million, and comprises three regions: Kashmir Valley, Jammu, and Ladakh.
Includes putting hot potatoes up the anus, passing electric shocks to the penis, and roasting the backside on a hot stove. All this is done in an interrogation centre to extract information about militants.
Papa 1, Papa 2, JIC, Air Cargo, SICOP.
JAMMU & KASHMIR (J&K)
The former princely state that is the area of the Kashmir Dispute. Besides Indian controlled J & K (IJK) and Pakistan controlled AZAD KASHMIR (AJK), it includes Gilgit and Baltistan and some uninhabitable high altitude tracts under Chinese control (Aksai Chin).
Jaish-e-Mohammad. A radical Islamic group centred in Pakistan and active in J&K. Formed in early 2000 by Maulana Masood Azhar, who was captured in Kashmir and later released in exchange for passengers in the 1999 Kandahar hijacking.
Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front. A movement founded in the mid sixties in AJK with the aim of reuniting the entire territory of the J&K as an independent state. It acquired support in IJK’s Kashmir valley in the late 1980s, and spearheaded the insurrection in 1990. it ceased guerilla activity in IJK in 1994, but it continues to be the voice of independentist ideology in both IJK and AJK.
A notional concept referring to an inclusive syncretic identity of Kashmiris with sources both in Hinduism and Islam. A term which has been widely debated, both by Kashmiri Pandits and Muslims.
Lashkar-eTaiba. An insurgent group active in IJK since the mid 1990s, spawned by a Pakistan-based movement professing an orthodox Sunni Islam. LeT cadres have been responsible for the deadliest fidayeen attacks in IJK since 1999. Along with JeM, LeT was formally banned in Pakistan in January 2002.
Line of Control. The 740 km dividing line between IJK and AJK. It originated in January 1949 as a ceasefire line between India and Pakistan and is now de-facto border. At its northern end, the LOC terminates at a point called NJ 9842 in the Himalayas, beyond which lies a glacial region, Siachen.
The Kashmir valley’s small (4%) Brahmin Hindu minority. In the 1990 uprising, Kashmir’s Pandit minority became extremely vulnerable to a sharp religious polarization. That year almost 200 Hindus were brutally killed by extremists. The Government of the day let it be known it was unable to guarantee their safety, and even encouraged them to leave. Over the next year, nearly 160,000 Pandits fled the valley. Today less than 10,000 continue to live in their Valley homeland.
A small military or paramilitary complex in civilian areas.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Rashtriya (National) Rifles. Regular Indian Army troops deployed since the early 1990s on full-time counterinsurgency operations in IJK. Four RR formations of over 10000 soldiers each operate in IJK, two in the Kashmir valley and two in the Jammu region.Romeo-RR force based in North Kashmir; Victor-RR force based in South Kashmir AND Kilo-RR force based in Central Kashmir.
Thanks to J who has contributed to this growing list.